Association Between Obesity and Therapeutic Goal Attainment in Patients With Concomitant Hypertension and Dyslipidemia

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Ishveen Chopra, MS; Khalid M. Kamal, PhD; Sean D. Candrilli, PhD; Gibbs Kanyongo, PhD

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Postgraduate Medicine:

Volume 126 No. 1


Clinical Focus

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DOI: 10.3810/pgm.2014.01.2726
Abstract: Background: Obesity is associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus, as well as cardiovascular diseases. Objectives: To evaluate demographic, diagnostic, and treatment characteristics of patients with concomitant hypertension and dyslipidemia, stratified by body mass index and the attainment of blood pressure (BP) and lipid targets in obese versus nonobese patients. Methods: This retrospective study used data from GE Centricity Electronic Medical Records database (2004–2011) of a primary care physician group. Patients aged ≥ 18 years and having concomitant hypertension and dyslipidemia were categorized based on their body mass index: normal weight (≤ 24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥ 30.0 kg/m2). Blood pressure and lipid goal attainments were based on Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, respectively. Results: A total of 9086 patients with concomitant hypertension and dyslipidemia were identified and categorized as normal weight (n = 1256), overweight (n = 3058) and obese (n = 4772). Patients who were obese were younger (< 65 years); were more likely to have diabetes mellitus (P < 0.001); had higher baseline BP and triglyceride levels and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.05); and were more likely to be prescribed antihypertensives and antilipemic agents (P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, obese patients were significantly more likely to fail to attain BP (odds ratio = 1.562, P < 0.001) and dual BP and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (odds ratio = 1.193, P = 0.023) goals. Conclusions: Obesity appears to be an independent risk factor for the failure to attain BP and dual BP and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals in patients with concomitant hypertension and dyslipidemia. These findings suggest that future research is needed to determine the underlying link between obesity and failure to attain these goals.

Keywords: body mass index; obesity; blood pressure; lipid; goal attainment