Effect of Early Weight Loss on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus After 2 Years of Gastric Banding

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Steven Edelman, MD; Sunil Bhoyrul, MD; Helmuth Billy, MD; Christopher Cornell, PhD; Ted Okerson, MD, FACP; The APEX Study Group

Table of Contents

Postgraduate Medicine:

Volume 124 No. 6

Category:

Clinical Features

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DOI: 10.3810/pgm.2012.11.2590
Abstract:
Objective: Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is an established bariatric surgical procedure that produces meaningful weight loss and improvements in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2. This study examined the effect of LAGB on T2DM status in severely obese patients with T2DM. Methods: This was a 2-year interim analysis of patients with T2DM who required daily hypoglycemic medication at baseline (N = 89) in the 5-year, open-label, prospective, observational LAP-BAND AP® EXperience (APEX) trial. Type 2 diabetes mellitus status was classified as “remission,” “improved,” “stable,” or “worse” based on physician- and patient-reported changes in T2DM control and changes in hypoglycemic medication use. Results: At baseline, 89 (22.5%) of 395 patients required daily hypoglycemic medication; 66 patients had data available after 2 years. Remission of T2DM occurred in 32 (48.5%) patients, improvement occurred in 31 (47.0%) patients, and no change occurred in 3 (4.5%) patients. Overall, 95.5% of patients experienced remission or improvement in T2DM status. Duration of T2DM in patients with remission or improvement after 2 years was 4.0 and 6.7 years, respectively (P = 0.082 between groups), and was associated with change in T2DM status (logistic regression, P = 0.069). Baseline BMI, change in BMI, and percent weight loss were not significantly different between the T2DM response groups. Percent excess weight loss was numerically, but not statistically significantly, greater in remitted (−56.1%) compared with the improved response (−42.9%) group (P = 0.134), and was correlated with change in T2DM status (logistic regression, P = 0.052). After 2 years, patients experienced remission or improvement of other obesity comorbidities. The rate of revisional surgery or explantation was 3.4%, and it was not significantly different between patients with and without T2DM (P = 0.687). Conclusion: Shorter duration of T2DM and greater percent excess weight loss were associated with an increased likelihood of remission or improvement in T2DM status through LAGB after 2 years. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is a potential adjunctive treatment for obese patients with T2DM.

Keywords: laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding; obesity; type 2 diabetes mellitus; weight loss